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Research “Arrive on time. Children, girls and adolescents at risk in Spain” made by CI Spirals for Aldeas Infantiles SOS Spain

One of the most important lines of work that we develop at CI Espirales are studies and research on the scope of protection. Our purpose is to provide elements of technical reflection for the improvement of the attention to children, girls and adolescents by the protection system. It is a line of work that completes those of training and supervision of teams of professionals in different areas and resources that exist within the system.

We work from a Child Rights Approach and comprehensive protection. We consider that protection is not only the eradication of all forms of violence against children, girls and adolescents but the generation of safe and protective environments that allow their full development as well as the exercise of their human rights. We believe in the social and institutional change that takes place in any field by transforming those environments and creating awareness about it in those responsible for them. The studies and research we carry out are a way for the CI Spirals team to create such awareness in technical and political leaders.

That's why the opportunity he offered us SOS Children's Villages of Spain to conduct research on childcare, Girls and adolescents at risk in Spain seemed to us both accurate and timely by the entity from the legitimacy of its work in the protection system through its family preservation and family and residential care programs.

The report Arrive on time. Children, girls and adolescents at risk in Spain is the result of an investigation that lasted a year and a half carried out on a sample of 150 municipalities throughout Spain. These municipalities were randomly chosen and make up a representative sample at the state level. In the sample there are rural and urban municipalities, of all population sizes and of all Autonomous Communities (and the two Autonomous Cities) proportionally to the number of inhabitants and protection files of each Autonomous Community. It can be downloaded in two formats:

The report reflects such diversity in the intervention carried out with children, girls and adolescents at risk in Spain that there is no variable, nor the autonomous community, nor the population size, that can explain the extreme differences between one municipality and another when evaluating the resources available to care for children, girls and adolescents at risk in their territory. Again, child, A girl or adolescent at risk will be guaranteed their right to protection in a different way depending on the municipality where they live.

The report also records the lack of systematization and accessibility of the system data. For example, there was a third of the municipalities that could not give the data of how many children, girls and adolescents at risk had in their municipality, solo 19 the 150 They were able to tell us how many of the children with whom they had intervened had ended up in a situation of guardianship due to abandonment, and it was impossible to find out the budget dedicated by each municipality to attend to these children, girls and adolescents at risk. The absence of data and the difficulty of accessing them makes the system impossible to evaluate.

And then there are the technical questions regarding the intervention. It is not the object of this entry to summarize all the data in the report because the entire research team would like it to be read in its entirety. But we do want to point out some issues that seem particularly worrying to us. There are three elements that are key if we want to carry out an effective intervention that can eradicate the risk situation in time:

  • Networking in the municipality that manages to incorporate the community in a real way in this intervention. This networking is only found in a third of the municipalities studied.
  • Intervention from primary prevention and in the earliest age groups. However, we found an age bias in the resources, the vast majority of them are dedicated to adolescence and most municipalities did not consider prevention as part of work at risk. The continuum between prevention, vulnerability and risk did not exist in most of the municipalities analyzed.
  • A positive view of the system towards families. We found a system with a more evaluative look than reparative or accompanying, that links risk to “lack of parental abilities” avoiding other types of situations of social conflict or risk, and that continues to link risk to social exclusion, focusing vulnerability intervention on economic vulnerability.

For us, the publication of this report comes later than we would have liked due to the circumstances in which we are.. It was carried out between May 2018 and may 2019 and only the data that the municipalities had available at the time could be collected corresponding to the period of 2017 (and in some cases 206). But still, We believe that due to its novelty and the breadth and representativeness of the sample it represents an opportunity. The opportunity to look with rigor and tranquility precisely the most necessary part of the protection system, the one that intervenes to avoid helplessness, the one that prevents pain, the harm and suffering of children, and adolescents, or at least manages to minimize it before taking other drastic measures. That part of the system that was created to guarantee the right contained in the Convention on the Rights of the Child and our own state and regional legislation: the right to grow up with your family and in a safe and protective environment. We hope that the report is an awareness tool.

And we cannot finish this presentation entry without thanking Violeta Assiego, Itziar Fernandez, Aurea Ferreres, Lourdes Juan and Santiago Míguez, without whose work it would have been impossible to develop this research. Thank you for teaching us so much. At Espirales CI we have always believed in networking to guarantee the legitimacy of what we do, and walking by your hand has been a privilege.

Also thanks to Aldeas Infantiles SOS España and especially to those who have collaborated in the investigation and in its dissemination for the trust they placed in us., without which this report would have been impossible. Thank you for the privilege of this shared path.

Pepa Horno and F. Javier Romeo

Online presentation of the research “Arrive on time. Children, girls and adolescents at risk in Spain” carried out by CI Spirals for Aldeas Infantiles SOS Spain on 24 September 2020

Online presentation of the research “Arrive on time. Children, girls and adolescents at risk in Spain” carried out by Spirales Consultoría de Infancia for SOS Children's Villages Spain. This research addresses the situation of vulnerable childhood in Spain and the itinerary of a child since it is declared at risk. The report analyzes a representative sample at the state level of 150 municipalities of all Autonomous Communities and identifies the public resources available for intervention with children, girls and adolescents at risk in order to preserve the family unit and avoid the loss of parental care. In the presentation they will participate, among others, Pepa Horno as coordinator of the investigation and F. Javier Romeo as technical coordinator.

Date: Thursday, 24 September 2020, the 16:00 a 18:00 (Madrid time).

More information and free pre-registration for the Zoom platform videoconference session at the website of the Zoom of Aldeas Infantiles SOS Spain for this event.

[Original Entry 14 September 2020, updated 24 September 2020, date of the online event].

Interview with Pepa Horno on child violence in Spain Spanish Committee for UNICEF

few days ago Spanish UNICEF Committee He offered me the opportunity to participate in a Facebook Live on its website whose video It is having a very large spread these days.

The theme was on violence against children in Spain and the need arose from the social alarm created by recent cases of assaults committed by adolescents in our country.

This is the video if you want to see. It's long, hard forty minutes. As I said before it took place, violence against children in Spain is a painful subject, complex and delicate and needs to be treated with the extension that deserves to not be reduced to a series of reductionist headlines, and as such false in any way.

Along with video, I also wanted to spread the sources from which the data came I mentioned. The Statistics National Statistics Institute on child deaths, and adolescents in 2016. On the other hand, the polivictimización study of children, and adolescents in the protection system and reform of Naomi Pereda, Abad Judit and Georgina Guilera of 2014, “Victimization protection in young children and adolescents and juvenile justice”.

For more than twenty years working on this subject and I have seen the social change that is being given to this issue, which is one of the most painful human faces. Violence against children, and adolescents and that they exert causes us fear, our basic security questions, that feeling we all need that are safe, that the people we love are safe, and especially, that our children are safe. Safe from being victims of aggression and safe from assaulting another person, is another child or adult.

I myself happen. Every time you interview me I look at the stats. And the numbers are so brutal, and year after year after year remain unmet, I myself I force myself not to look too statistics. Looking at them gives me the same bellyache with which I went to bed the night before this video, the same tears, the same pain. the same, in. Plus. Because we have many years knowing what we have to do without it. Many years allowing child deaths, and adolescents. Many years looking the other way.

This is not new, man looks away very often to what confronts their fragility and their misery. We look away when other children are more easily when they are ours. But we do. They do the rulers, They make political, but they do also defining the academic curriculum related professional children still without changing to include academic programs abuse so that people who should detect: doctors, teachers, psychologists, social workers, social workers… know how. They do each and every one of the professionals who know, intuit or have certainty and they look away. We do families when we decided not to talk about it to our children. Does every citizen who hears, intuited, look and decides not to report.

And year after year I'm looking at a single figure. I do not even go to the big numbers, I small and extreme. I'll murders and suicides among children, and adolescents. In 2016, 17 children killed in homicides and 70 who have committed suicide. And every so often when they give me the opportunity and I got it here, I go out publicly and say, with a mixture of sorrow, cry and cry.

Because it's true that things have changed a lot, Already much better. It is undeniable social progress to this topic, changing attitudes and visibility is having. Are real resources to address it, the advancement of specialized resources to assist those who are victims of abuse, adults who were children and continue to suffer for it and children, and adolescents who bully others. Progress is undeniable and gives meaning to what we do and many others.

But we still die. In a year 87. 87. And we do not even know the faces of many of them. Neither their names. Neither his pain. And they are only the tip of an indescribable pain that nests in those that survived, children who continue to survive and children living still trembling in the hearts of so many adults who work and live with us.

And when the night before looked at the figures and rage and anguish came over me, the pain that invisible pain within our own home, I returned again to a promise I made a long time ago: I'll keep screaming their names.

Pepa Horno

Pd. If anyone wants to know more about this subject, leave here linked several blog entries you write while on the subject. On the one hand, political analysis of the situation of violence against children in Spain we published when it was created in 2014 the Subcommittee on violence against children in the Congress of Deputies. For another, I published a post on the blog Do not ask Calma just call Counting our dead the number of violent deaths of children, and adolescents in our country. And we publish another entry on the importance of give voice to victims. And last, the said guide we produce for UNICEF Spanish Committee in its program of Child Friendly Cities initiatives that municipalities can develop to address this problem.

Research and good practice guide on family and residential care developed for UNICEF Spanish Committee

Within the work we do in Spiral Consulting Children there are projects that take on special meaning and depth for the whole team. These two documents that we present today is one of them.

A place to stay. Child care, and adolescents in foster care in the protection system in Spain is the executive summary of qualitative research we have done from February to July 2017 to Spanish UNICEF Committee on the situation of family and residential care . Apart from certain aspects statewide, The research focused on nine regions: Andalusia, Asturias, Baleares, Canary Islands, Castilla y León, Catalonia, Community of Madrid, Galicia and the Basque Country. These communities were chosen as representative sample state by two criteria: representation by population and the number of children, and adolescents in foster care in their territory.

In each community an analysis of statistical data was made, the budgets, the legislative framework and documentation available on the website of the administrations. also, He interviewed the authorities responsible, professional protection system, academic experts and associates, as well as responsible for the enforcement of child rights at the state level institutions and in different territories. In total he was interviewed 160 people.

also, consistent work field visit was carried out at a minimum of two centers in each autonomous community protection, with a focus group with children, girls and adolescents living in each center and a focus group to foster families foster care program in each community. The guide includes testimonies of these interviews and focus groups.

One of the two objectives of this research was to identify benchmarks of good practice and make recommendations for improving care for children, and adolescents in family and residential care in Spain. We have designed the second document presented today Foster care as an opportunity for life. This guide, as its subtitle says, It is a guide “Referents of good practice and recommendations for suitable care for children, and adolescents in family and residential care”. Collect all models of good practice identified in the different autonomous communities, as well as a reference framework of good practice that can guide the improvement of care in foster care and residential.

This work was done by Team Consulting Espirales Children, Pepa Horno Goicoechea and F. Javier Romeo Biedermann, Aurea Ferreres along with Esteban, Lourdes Juan Torres, Valobra Hernán Cortés Fernández and Itziar Marchi. Go from here our gratitude and deep appreciation to all of them without whom this work would have been impossible to realize, not only for its size but because of the sensitivity of its content and the reality analyzed. We also want to thank the team for Advocacy Studies and Spanish UNICEF Committee their trust in us and clarity of your choice to visualize an issue as necessary as poorly attended so far.

But here we also want to thank each of the people who helped and made this work possible. A public administrations and their technical managers who supported us and helped in its realization, each of these 160 professionals interviewed, each family of the focus groups gave testimony of brave and honest process as foster families and especially, each and every one of the children, and adolescents who told us in focus groups: “consider this”. So we do the best we could and knew, and we hope that they all feel so.

From here, Now that the work is published, we can only wish it to be a useful tool for improving care for children, and adolescents in family and residential care in Spain.

Pepa and Javier

Report “They are children, They are victims” on child trafficking in Spain

Last Wednesday I had the honor to attend the presentation of the report They are children, They are victims. Situation of minors trafficked in Spain, by the University Institute of Migration Studies (iuem) of the Universidad Pontificia Comillas de Madrid (the authors are José María Castaño Reyero and Ana Pérez Adroher) in collaboration with Spanish UNICEF Committee.

From Espirales CI welcome this document that combines three basic elements.

On the one hand, is a wakeup call to society to all kinds of professionals on this subject as invisible. It was a pleasure to see so many professionals involved in this area, and also see how this problem has appeared in various media. Much work remains ahead, but naming things is a first step.

On the other hand, The document provides a comprehensive conceptualization of children casuistry, and adolescents trafficked in Spain: mostly teenage girls for sexual exploitation, but also boys, and children younger, and labor exploitation, begging, and forced marriages. Y, very interesting, the sons and daughters of trafficked women, which they are sometimes held hostage by criminal organizations, both here in Spain and in their countries of origin, and serve to exercise control over their mothers.

Last, five conclusions which are five steps to take from the report:

  • The sons and daughters of trafficked women are also considered victims of trafficking (with all its special protection rights).
  • The need for child victims of trafficking are identified, priority, as children, with all the rights that are recognized them as such.
  • The importance of creating a record of coordinating all trafficking victims statewide.
  • The urgency that there are specific resources for children, and adolescent victims of trafficking, they can not be general protection, trafficking networks because they are located and recovered.
  • The training of professionals who have contact with children, and adolescent victims of trafficking (from Espirales CI we have already given several formations thereon, and we offer resources in blog entries on the subject of trafficking).

They have also created a video that summarizes some key findings briefly, for rapid dissemination.

Congratulations for all entities and individuals who have made possible the emergence of this report and recommend its detailed reading.

F. Javier Romeo

Video “Neuroeducación: by another school”

From Espirales CI work for the transformation of the educational model with the aim of integrating the emotional and physical learning at school, following the scientific advances in psychology and neuroscience in recent years.

It is not only a new look to the educational process but to incorporate technical rigor and professionalism knowledge on the evolution and brain development we have and a few years ago we did not know.

But it is not easy to find materials and references that explain in an understandable way for families and educators these advances in knowledge. The video that we publish today “Neuroeducación: by another school” drawn from the movement in defense of public school ( It is one of these rare and precious materials.

We hope you find it useful and illuminating and contribute to awareness of the need for educational change.

Pepa Horno

Child sexual abuse: how to make the data visible

In recent weeks the issue of child sexual abuse, which has been from the beginning of CI Espirales one of our priority areas of work, It is gaining relevance in public and social agenda. This type of decision-awareness of a problem it is necessary to provide them with reliable data and rigorous arguments. And in the case of child sexual abuse, both elements are incontestable.

In recent weeks we have had access, thanks to the extraordinary work done in Soledad Sánchez Blog Service to Children and Adolescents the Aragon Institute of Social Services (We mentioned an entry in our blog some years ago), two publications that we want to echo that provide as rigorous as shocking data on this issue.

gaceta_sanitaria_2015The first is a study by Naomi Pereda and collaborators (Judit Abad, Georgina Guilera y Mila Arch) and published in the Gaceta Sanitaria, volume 29, number 5 of 2015, qualified “Community self-reported sexual victimization in Spanish adolescents and groups at risk”. Léanla. Collect a large sample of adolescents, both EU population, as seen in child and adolescent mental health centers, or living in shelters and centers reform. Attend to the data from the questionnaires that have happened reporting of different forms of sexual victimization:

The extent of sexual victimization ranges from 14,7% throughout the life of the total community sample, a 23,5% in / the youth served / as in mental health, a 35,6% of / the young people involved / as in the juvenile justice system and 36,4% of / the children treated / as by the protection system. There is a majority of female victims, except under juvenile justice.

And there are more data on the polivictimización, about age differences, gender… Read it. They are all Spanish adolescents. And perhaps reading studies like this one may look somewhat different from adolescents to being served in the protection system, but especially those who are cared for in the juvenile justice system.

childrens_commissionerThe other study is that we want to echo UK, by the office of the Commissioner for Children of England. Its titled Protect children from danger: A critical assessment of child sexual abuse in the family in England and priorities for action (Protecting children from harm: A critical assessment of child sexual abuse in the family network in England and priorities for action – Children’s Commissioner for England) and it was published in the UK in November 2015. In this case, The study focuses on the prevalence of child sexual abuse in the family in England. It also speaks, and among other chilling details, of a 11,3% teenagers in England who report experiences of child sexual abuse in their family environment.

But in addition to data, to achieve public visibility of this problem, It is necessary to develop social awareness materials, and that victims can speak and tell their stories. If we can not get data from studies disseminate existing today and many others face and take, history, humanity, society will never own and react to them. The problem is that children, and adolescents can not speak alone, They need support to stop being figures only read studies that we work with them.

Just a few weeks ago we echoed one of these narrated the first person by a victim as an adult stories, which he recounts in his book James Rhodes Instrumental. Associations adults who were abused in childhood play a key role in this process, we must support and promote. It is his voice that should be heard.

And in this sense, Today we want to echo two films we've seen in recent weeks and are mandatory when working on this issue.

The first and most diffusion is taking is Spotlight, directed by Tom McCarthy, which tells the team work of journalists who uncovered the cover-up of the Archbishop of Boston of sexual abuse by several priests of his diocese. The film told through the experience of journalists, his vision of what they discovered, the horror and pain of the victims, and silence extended far beyond what might seem. A heavy silence that extends the boundaries of responsibility for what happened beyond the priests themselves.

The other film is The club, a Chilean film directed by Pablo Larraín. It is a film that hurts to see. Tells the story of several priests removed from work for various reasons. The performances are unique and reflect what are horrors that we are responsible not forget.

Child sexual abuse is a reality. And the only way to prevent and eradicate it is to name and denounce. The silence of our societies and the lack of training and appropriate intervention by our institutions are the second and third form of victimization to those children that we did not know, we could or wanted to protect. And that victimization does not end with childhood. If not named, if not viewed from the front, lifelong. And it destroys.

Pepa Horno

Homophobia in the classroom: a latent reality that we can face

I write my first blog post Spirals Consulting childhood to draw attention to an issue that I find really disturbing: homophobia in the classroom.

Recently, and objective of writing a post, “Sizing, visible and tackle homophobia in classrooms, an urgent matter”, blog “Pride and prejudice”, to review the available literature on this topic, I could find available information that helped me to gauge the implications of an invisible reality, and even naturalized by all parties involved, and that keeps many children in a distressing situation in a crucial stage of his life to define their identity and personality.

sergio_aguado_homofobiaThe issues that most caught my attention were the following:

  • The lack of updated information, and especially, from the institutions responsible for ensuring the rights of children, and adolescents in education. To address this situation, It is appreciated the effort COGAM to make available the latest study on the subject in Madrid, dating from 2013. It was revealed that a 81% student was defined as lesbian, gay or bisexual does not dare to come out in your school. The responsibility for obtaining such information should not fall, at least exclusively, on civil society. The results, of a limited number of centers that collaborated in the gathering of information character, They should draw the attention of the institutions in assuming not only an extension and continuity in the diagnosis of this information to identify trends and developments, but also to adapt a systematic institutional response.
  • Homophobia in schools is a persistent reality in countries that have made significant progress in recognizing the rights of the LGBT community: in UK, the 65% LGB high school students experienced homophobic bullying at school, and that 97% hear homophobic language in the school context. In France, a 59% of the pupils and students who define themselves as lesbians, gays, bisexual or transgender people report having been subjected to homophobic insults. A homogenized research at European level to help us gauge the reality of homophobia in school would be desirable, and thus identify the cultural patterns that support it.
  • Lack of tools and space for the educational community to address homophobia. This situation made, in the study by COGAM around a 42% of LGTB students consider that · the teachers do little or nothing to homophobic insults in the classroom ".

Fortunately, an increasing number of resources to address homophobia emerges as a problem of coexistence in the classroom, and to tackle the attacks that occur. In the post I wrote a number of resources that can be useful for teachers are collected, mothers and fathers. In addition to those described in the post I published, I would add the resources available on the web FELGTB, adapted for both primary as for high school.

It is also encouraging news the emergence of associations and bodies formed by and / or children, and adolescents LGBT, that help boost the visibility homophobic violations suffered since childhood. The Daniela Foundation and It gets better are two examples which I think is important to note.

You can consult the full text of the post on homophobia in classrooms this link.

Sergio Aguado

“Protective community: Regional Study on Community Protection Mechanisms against Violence” Research compiled by CI Spirals for Plan International office in the Latin America and Caribbean

plan_espiralesci_comunidad_protectoraIt is a pleasure for us to disseminate the report Protective community. Community regional study on mechanisms of protection against violence: Features and Challenges result of an investigation made by the entire team of CI Espirales, coordinated by Lyda Guarin, Specialist Regional Protection against Violence, and published by the Regional Office for the Americas (ROA) (@PlanAmericas) the plan International, and you can download full at this link.

Community protection mechanisms are often regarded as the last link in the protection of children, behind the appropriate legislative framework or relevant institutions, when in fact they are the first link, which it has direct access to children, their families and their communities. Are community protection mechanisms which enable efficient detection and prevention adjusted to the reality of the communities where they work. They are the ones who determine the ultimate effectiveness of formal protection system.

These mechanisms in regions such as the Americas and the Caribbean acquire a variety of structures, shapes and big realities that needed to be analyzed to achieve describe the ways that communities in different locations, regions or countries had met to organize in the struggle to eradicate violence they live their children.

For Espirales CI meant a challenge and a recognition of our work we thank once again from here, the fact that an organization like plan International We chose to develop this regional mapping of community protection mechanisms.

This report is the result of a process that have been identified 1182 mechanisms, It analyzed the work of Plan International and other twelve organizations in the region, and they have conducted personal interviews 42 adult community leaders, families or organizations and staff 48 children, and adolescents who participated in working groups on field visits to the region.

But it is not only the interest of the structure, typology and processes of creation of community protection mechanisms identified, their target populations, developed strategies and actions and the priority thematic lines. It is also the analysis of the achievements and the resulting challenges.

The achievements are evident: joint decentralized system of protection in various countries, participation processes for children and young, creating care resources for victims or improved training of key actors in communities, and the creation of informal networks very effective in detecting situations of risk and helplessness.

Among the challenges, and to encourage the reading of the report, we highlight the difficulty for inclusion of vulnerable groups, the poor visibility of male children victims of violence or poor systematization of work developed.

also, There is a particularly relevant point in this work is the lack of self-care spaces and support for community leaders and staff of organizations and institutions that drive these structures. Especially considering that his job involves staying in communities, the entry into the daily lives of families, the identification of risk and vulnerability living every day children, and adolescents.

In short, This work includes a lot of information and some key recommendations that can serve professionals and institutions that want to develop a community protection work. We hope the recommendations will serve to meet children, and adolescents who spoke to us of “corner where children disappear” or “the slope why we can not go to cole because there is a madman who comes and attacks you” in their communities. Realities they describe clearly and, Unfortunately, resignedly.

Pepa Horno, F. Javier Romeo, Lucia Losoviz and Sergio Aguado

Public investment in children

unicef_ceet_infancia_en_presupuestosA couple of weeks, Spanish UNICEF Committee published a study by the Thyme Economic Research Center (CEET) called Childhood budgets. Estimated investment in child-related policies in Spain and its evolution between 2007 and 2013 which has been heavily discussed in social networks, mainly because it has highlighted the decline of public investment in childhood and adolescence and the investment disparity between regions.

But the study also points out other aspects from Spiral Consulting Children feel should be included on the agenda of advocacy for all people, organizations and institutions working towards the rights of children.

On the one hand, should be required clarity and disaggregation of information reflected in public budgets, to access so easy and transparent access to data and to analyze investment from different perspectives:

  • According to lifecycles of children (early childhood, school, adolescence) as the impact of investment in early childhood affects the development of the following stages and is essential to establish the basis of equity. It also allows analyzing whether the specific needs of each cycle are covered.
  • According to socioeconomic status, to analyze if the investment reaches the needy or vulnerable groups, ensuring equitable distribution of resources.
  • Allowing comparison with other budget or actual expenditures, to keep track of the actual investment made and compare with other items in the state budget, analyze the volume and composition of resources allocated and how efficient they are used.
  • To assess the investment effectiveness. For this purpose the budgets should be developed based on results to measure the performance of institutions and the use of public resources in programs or projects that achieve the results required.
  • To provide the accountability mechanisms on public investment in childhood and adolescence, which may be at parliamentary level, by supervisory bodies, by independent human rights institutions, inter. Access to information by citizens is essential to ensure transparency in the use of public resources in fulfilling the rights of children.

On the other hand, must be strengthened spaces and participatory processes by citizenship, including children, for budgeting at different levels. There are already some experience at the municipal level, that can serve as an example to establish participatory mechanisms in the budgets of the autonomous communities. Society as a whole, including children, must assume a leading role in decisions that affect them directly, as is investment in public policy.

Last, should be established Minimum investment standards in childhood at the state level Spanish to avoid inequities and ensure equal opportunities for all children, and adolescents, to facilitate the use of indicators to measure the impact of such investment policies and programs for children and adolescents, giving more importance to the results and quality of the volume invested.

To date investment in children has depended on the political will of successive governments, It is time to become a priority of state and with the participation of citizens, and especially, voice of children, and adolescents.


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